eye shadow

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TYPES

There are also many different types of eye shadow:

  • Powder: The most common type of shadow used, powder shadow comes pressed in a pan or pallet and stays firm in the pan until a finger or brush is used to pick up some of the powder.
  • Cream– A creamy substance, the color may be matte or shimmery. Cream eye shadow is commonly used as a base for powder or loose eye shadow.
  •  Baked shadow– baked shadow is also pressed like a powder shadow, but it’s marbleized and baked in an oven. It can be used either dry or wet, and can sometimes have more than one color swirled in it.
  • Liquid– This type of shadow can also be matte or shimmery. Packaged in small tubes, this liquid color is applied with a sponge and dries quickly on the skin.
  • Pigment/Loose powder-. Instead of being pressed, they are a loose powder and it is highly pigmented. They are applied with a shadow brush just like a pressed powder.
  • Pencils– Pencil eye shadows are a newer shadow. They are normally a cream type shadow that comes in the form of a pencil. These are normally used for the same thing as the cream shadow; as a base for powder or loose eye shadow.
  • Finishes – There are a few different finishes that a shadow can have.
    • Sheer: This type of shadow comes in a pressed powder form, and will appear sheer on the lid. It will add just a hint of the color but will not be bold.
    • Matte: This type of shadow has no shimmer, sparkle, or metallic in it. It is just the plain color.
    • Shimmer: This type of shadow is a color that also has shimmer, sparkle or metallic in it.

 

FORMULATIONS

  • Pressed eye shadow – is usually the most common option when it comes to eye makeup. The pigments are mixed with binding agents and pressed together into a small pan, which is then placed in a compact. You can apply pressed shadow with a sponge-tip applicator, a brush or even a clean finger. This form of shadow is available in a variety of finishes, including matte, satin, shimmer and glitter, and because it is solid, it doesn’t make much of a mess in your makeup bag or drawer. Pressed shadows work well for most skin types, but they are an especially good option if you have oily skin on your eyelids.
  • Loose eye shadow – is similar to pressed eye shadow except the pigments aren’t mixed with any binding agents, so it has a loose, powdery consistency. The shadow usually comes in small pots or jars — the downside being that it can make a mess in your makeup bag if the lid isn’t shut correctly. The shadows come in several finishes, but they usually have a high amount of shimmer or glitter, so they’re not always the best option for mature eyelids because they can draw attention to fine lines and crepiness. A brush is usually the best applicator for loose shadows, but working with this form of shadow can be tricky because the particles can easily fall off the brush and drop down onto your cheek. When you’re using loose shadow, do your eye makeup before your face makeup so you don’t mess up your foundation if some of the shadow drops onto your face.
  • Cream eye shadow – uses the same pigments as pressed and loose shadows do, but they are mixed with enough binding agents to give them a creamy consistency. They are available in a variety of forms, depending on the thickness or thinness of the formula. Some cream shadows are packaged in pots or jars, while others come in pencil form or in a tube with a wand applicator. You can use a synthetic brush, sponge-tip applicator or a clean finger to apply a potted cream shadow. With a tube or pencil style, you can apply directly from the container and use a clean finger or brush to blend the shadow out. Because of the creamy texture, these shadows usually have a dewy finish that is particularly flattering for dry and mature eyelids. However, cream shadows are prone to creasing, especially if you have oily lids.

 

SHELF LIFE / EXPIRATION
12 to 18 months

To keep your eyes from getting red or itchy, replace powder shadows after about three months, according to Hammer. Even though they are similar in formulation to other powders, because they’re constantly in contact with a mucous membrane, there’s a higher risk of transferring bacteria to the product and then back to the eyes. Pay extra attention to cream-based shadows, which tend to grow bacteria more quickly than powders. If you use your fingers to apply, wash your hands before doing so, and be aware of any color switches or off-putting smells.

If you’ve had an eye infection, you’ll need to throw out all the eye make up and applicators you used from the time you developed symptoms. The virus or bacteria that caused the infection has probably taken up residence in your make up, so using those cosmetics again could cause you to develop another infection.

Powder shadows, like pressed powders, are less prone to contamination because they, too, lack water (if you wet them, toss after 6 months). But aging eye shadows have performance issues: They get packed down, making it harder to pick up pigment with your brush.

 

 

TIPS TO EXTEND

  • Since eyeshadow comes in so many colors, textures, and styles, most women have stacks of palettes to choose from. But have you ever traveled with your eyeshadow or pressed powder? They can crack and fall out of their palettes, making for a huge mess and a waste of money.
    Since powder shadows can last three to six months, you can revive your travel-damaged colors by pressing them back into their palettes, adding a few drops of rubbing alcohol, and pressing the powder into place with the back of a spoon. Good as new!
  • Although eye shadow tends to last longer than other types of makeup, you should still watch for signs of wear. Toss eye shadow when pigments change or if you notice waxy buildup. To maximize eye shadow life, invest in fewer colors and buy smaller sizes. Also, if you add water to powder shadow for darker, more intense color, don’t keep it longer than six months.

INGREDIENTS

Common ingredients in eye shadows consist of talc, mica, sericite, magnesium stearate, colorants, and preservatives. Fillers in eye shadows are primarily talc. The liquid binders are typically a silicone and the dry binders are typically magnesium stearate. In order to make an eye shadow, there has to be a balance between the fillers, dry binders and liquid binders. Once the ideal combination is found the shadow are pressed using 700-900psi.

  • Eye shadow formulations start with a base filler. Cosmetics chemist Jane Hollenberg says cosmetic-grade talc or mica is a primary filler ingredient. But some formulas use kaolin clay.
    Binders are used to ensure the powder adheres to your skin. The most common binders are derivatives of zinc or magnesium. In addition to pigment, some manufacturers add silica, nylon, dimethicone, boron nitride (a ceramic material), or bismuth oxychloride for “slip” so the powder will slide more easily over the lid. A bit of preservative like glycol (a type of alcohol) or tocopherol (a form of vitamin E) helps prevent bacterial growth.
    The big difference between a cream and a powder shadow is the waxes and oils used in the base. Beeswax, castor oil, jojoba oil, shea butter, and silicone are among the ingredients used for liquefying a standard shadow. Once the wax or oil dries, the pigment tends to wear longer due to the way the ingredients bond with the skin.
    Before you pack your favorite shadow, consider which are more likely to crumble in your bag. Frosted shades, violets, and blues are difficult to compress into cakes and break more easily. Matte shadows are more likely to hold together.

Talc, also known as hydrous magnesium silicate, is a toxic ingredient similar to asbestos. Listed on the Environment Canada Domestic Substance List as a substance that is “expected to be toxic or harmful,” talc is commonly found in eye shadow, baby powder, face powder, and other loose-mineral cosmetics, where it’s used as an absorbent, anti-caking agent.

 

MANUFACTURING

  • There are two main types of mascara currently manufactured. One type is called anhydrous, meaning it contains no water. The second type is made with a lotion base, and is manufactured by the emulsion method.
  •  Anhydrous — In this method, all waxes, oils, and pigments are mixed, heated, and agitated simultaneously in formulated ratios, creating a semi-solid substance that is ready to be packaged, shipped, and sold.
  • Emulsion — This method also creates a semi-solid substance, but the process is very different. In this method, water and thickeners are first combined. Separately, waxes and emulsifiers (substances used to keep liquids from separating) are mixed and heated.
  • Pigment is then added individually to both mixtures, which is then agitated in a homogenizer. After the mascara solution has cooled, it is moved to a filling machine, which pumps a measured amount of the mascara into glass or plastic mascara bottles. The bottles are usually capped by hand. Samples are then removed for inspection, and rest are prepared for distribution.

CONTAINER

  • Plastic Tube

 

PACKAGING

  • Only Buy From brands with programs that support recycling and sustainability.

 

BRANDS WITH RECYCLING PROGRAMS

 

RECYCLING PROGRAMS

 

DIY  |  REUSE IDEAS

 

 

FUN FACTS

In ancient Greece, eye shadow was known as fucus, and Greek women wore shades of green and blue made from gem stones like lapis lazuli and malachite. From there, the custom spread throughout the world and down through history. Today, eye shadow is still a key element in a woman’s makeup kit.

 

HISTORY

Eye shadow is a cosmetic product that is applied on the eyelids and under eyebrows. This is done to accentuate wearers (usually female) eyes, give them depth, dimension, and make them more attractive and noticeable. Over the course of history, many civilizations used eye shadow as an important part of their fashion and religion, creating countless types of colors and eye shadow textures. Because eye shadow can quickly and effectively totally change the appearance of ones face, stage and film actors used this cosmetic product to form the look of their iconic roles.

  • Eye Shadows
    First proof of eye shadow existence leads to 12 thousand years ago in Ancient Egypt, where they used famous substance called kohl (made out from lead, oxidized copper, ochre, ash, malachite, crushed antimony, burnt almonds and chrysocolla ore). They did not use this substance just as a means to improve their appearance, but it also served a purpose as a medicinal remedy that reduced infections and glare. It is also worth to mention that eye shadow, as many other Egyptian cosmetic product was a part of a religious ceremonies and daily religious life. Royalty (and eventually rest of the population) used cosmetic products to enhance their looks and bring them more to the appearance that emulated their gods. Another type of ancient eye liner can be found in Mesopotamia, some 5 thousand years ago. There women grinded semi-precious stones and used their sparkling dust to decorate their lips and eyes.
  • Eye Shadow in Tube
    After eye shadow products came into Greece and Rome, they lost their religious significance and were used only as tools for making someone more pretty. Luxurious and expensive eye shadows from distant kingdoms such as Babylon and India were not available to entire population, and only upper-class women and men had the funds to get hold of them. Romans also created their own versions of eye shadows, with recipes that involved herbs, crushed minerals, dried flowers, animal sources, and crystallized dyes from plants.
  • Modern day version of eye shadow was born in in early 20th century, during the fashion revolution of 1920s. Then, chemist found the way to use mineral ingredients that removed unwanted effects of previous eye shadow products (irritation and hard removal). From that point on, eye shadow became important part of worldwide fashion, sometimes being very popular and sometimes receding and enabling women to use more “natural” look.

 

 

TIPS

No matter what type of eye shadow you use, start with an eye-shadow primer. This product helps to form a barrier between the oils in your eyelid and your eye shadow so the makeup lasts longer and doesn’t crease. Primer can also even out discoloration of your eyelids so your eye shadow goes on true to color. While pressed, loose and cream shadows may be used on their own, you can also combine them to create different looks. Using a cream eye shadow in a matching shade under your pressed or loose shadow makes the color more intense for a bold, dramatic look.

 

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REFERENCES

 


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